Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Prehypertension, significantly increases stroke risk. It is reported that, after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, pre-hypertension which is blood pressure range 120 to 139/80 to 89 millimeter of Mercury is associated with increased risk for stroke, compared with an optimal blood pressure. Patients in the high range of pre-hypertension, that is to say, 130 to 139/85 to 89 millimeter of Mercury have 95% increased risk of stroke, compared with 44% increased risk for those in the low range of prehypertension, which is 120 to 129/80 to 84 millimeter of Mercury.
Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 millimeter of Mercury or more, or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 millimeter of Mercury or more, or taking antihypertensive medication. Based on recommendations of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, the classification of blood pressure for adults aged 18 years or older has been as follows: Normal blood pressure with systolic lower than 120 millimeter of Mercury and diastolic lower than 80 millimeter of Mercury. The Pre-Hypertensive patients are those who are with systolic of 120 to 139 millimeter of Mercury and diastolic of 80 to 89 millimeter of Mercury. Stage 1 hypertensive patients have the systolics ranging 140 to 159 millimeter of Mercury and diastolic anywhere between 90 to 99 millimeter of Mercury. Stage 2 hypertension is diagnosed when systolics are consistently in the 160 or greater range and diastolic of 100 millimeter of Mercury or greater.
Hypertension may be primary, which may develop as a result of environmental or genetic causes, or secondary, which has multiple etiologies, including renal, vascular, and endocrine causes. Primary or essential hypertension accounts for 90-95% of adult cases, and secondary hypertension accounts for 2-10% of cases.
The evaluation of hypertension involves, accurately measuring the patient’s blood pressure, taking a focused medical history, performing a thorough physical examination, and obtaining results of routine laboratory studies. A 12-lead electrocardiogram should also be obtained. These measures help determine the presence of end-organ disease, possible causes of hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors, and as well gives baseline values for judging biochemical effects of therapy. Other studies may be obtained on the basis of clinical findings or in individuals with suspected secondary hypertension and/or evidence of target-organ disease, such as complete blood count, chest radiograph, uric acid, and urine microalbumin.
Guidelines from JNC, the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommend lifestyle modification as the first step in managing hypertension.
JNC’s recommendations to lower blood pressure and decrease cardiovascular disease risks include 2 or more lifestyle modifications are combined. Weight Loss leads to dropping of systolic blood pressure by 5-20 millimeter of Mercury per 10 kg. Limiting alcohol intake to no more than 30 mL of ethanol per day for men and 15 mL of ethanol per day for women helps the blood pressure to drop by 2-4 millimeter of Mercury. Reducing Sodium Intake to no more than 2.4 grams of sodium or 6 grams of sodium chloride leads to reduction of 2-8 millimeter of Mercury. Maintaining adequate Intake of Dietary Potassium, approximately 90 millimoles per day and adequate Dietary Calcium & Magnesium are some of the other lifestyle modifications advocated by JNC. Smoking cessation and reducing intake of Dietary Saturated Fat & Cholesterol is good for overall cardiovascular health. Engaging in Aerobic Exercise for at least 30 minutes daily for most days reduces the systolic blood pressure by 4-9 millimeter of Mercury.
The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends a diet that is low in sodium, high in potassium along with consumption of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products to reduce blood pressure and lower the risk of stroke.
The 2013 European Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend a low-sodium diet consisting of 5 to 6 grams per day as well as reducing body-mass index to 25 kg per meter square and waist circumference to less than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
If lifestyle modifications are insufficient to achieve the goal blood pressure, there are several drug options for treating and managing hypertension. Thiazide diuretics are the preferred agents in the absence of compelling indications. Compelling indications may include high-risk conditions such as heart failure, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and recurrent stroke, or those conditions commonly associated with hypertension, including diabetes and high coronary disease risk. Drug intolerability or contraindications may also be factors. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers are all acceptable alternative agents in such compelling cases.
Love at the level of biology is all chemicals. The attraction process is strongly linked to physiological arousal that typically starts with increased heart rate and sweatiness. When you catch sight of your beloved, your heart starts racing because of an adrenaline rush.
The brain sends signals to the adrenal gland, which secretes hormones such as adrenaline, epinephrine and norepinephrine. They flow through the blood and cause the heart to beat faster and stronger. It is similar to a fast heartbeat while running on a treadmill. For people with serious heart problems, love could actually be dangerous because when the heart rate goes up, the heart uses more oxygen, which can be risky for a person with blood vessel blockages or who has had a prior heart attack. Good medicines such as beta blockers help curb the adrenaline response. The norepinephrine, a stress hormone that governs attention and responding actions, makes one feel weak in the knees. The brain imaging studies of people who said they were "madly in love" showed activity in the area of the brain that produces the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dopamine and norepinephrine are closely related. Dopamine gives you focused attention, the craving, the euphoria, the energy and the motivation to win life’s greatest prize. This norepinephrine response seems to be more active in people who are in love. Serotonin system too plays a role. Data from an Italian study indicate that a drop in serotonin levels is associated with obsessive thinking. The stress hormone cortisol has also been shown to have implications for love. Those who are in love show an increase in stress hormones such as cortisol.
Three brain systems play vital role in romantic love: sex drive, love and attachment. The sex drive evolved to get you to look for a lot of partners, the "love" portion is for focusing mating energy on one specific person at a time, and attachment is for allowing you to tolerate the partner — at least, long enough to have children with him or her. These systems are often connected, but can function separately. You can start out with one of them — casual sex, or an intense feeling of love, or an emotional connection — and move on to the others. For example, what may start out as a one-night stand may feel like more because the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin, released during orgasm, make you feel deeply attached to someone. You may feel in love after that, or instead feel somehow responsible for the person, because of these hormones.
The romantic love doesn’t have to die. The activity level in the brains of people who are in love after 20 years of marriage is same as in people who had just fallen in love. This brain area makes dopamine and sends it to other areas. In the days of early humans, in hunting-and-gathering societies, these qualities were especially advantageous for finding a person to bear and raise children.
Love also has health benefits for people who have aged beyond their reproductive years. Being in love makes people feel optimistic, energetic, focused and motivated, which were all positive for health and societal contribution in the early days of humans. So, it makes sense evolutionarily that people can still fall in love after their childbearing period.
Romance is good for health. Studies have shown that people who have frequent sex are generally healthier, with a longer life, fewer coronary events and lower blood pressure. A 1995 study in the journal Demography found that marriage adds seven years to a man’s life and two years to a woman’s.
It is hypothesized that people for whom the love is still new will respond to the stress and recover from it quicker than those who have recently been in a breakup or have been in a relationship for a long time. The guess is that when individuals are falling in love, they are walking around with rose-colored glasses.
Since lightning is electricity, how hot can a lightning bolt be?
Hotter than you probably think, says Brent McRoberts of Texas A&M University. "Scientists have done numerous experiments on this very subject," McRoberts explains, "and the air around a lightning bolt can reach as high as 54,000 degrees. That is over five times hotter than the surface of the sun. That is why when the air gets that hot, it expands faster than the speed of sound, and the compressed air around it sends out a quick shock wave — and that is thunder. Since one bolt is really several bolts strung together, there are several of these shock waves one right after another, each at a different altitude. That is why thunder often seems to rumble. One bolt can contain millions of volts of electricity, McRoberts adds, "That’s why lightning can be such a killer — it is extremely powerful. About 100 U.S. residents are killed by lightning each year, and remember that worldwide, there are more than 1,000 thunderstorms at any given moment, causing 6,000 lightning strikes per minute. It has been estimated that the Empire State Building in New York City is struck by lightning an average of 25 times each year.”
This is a photograph taken from the teenager (shirtless guy) named Austin Schafer’s Twitter account, of a kid being tied up and beaten by upper classmen at Columbia High School in Nampa, Idaho.
President Franklin Roosevelt famously asserted, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." I think he was right, actually. Fear of fear probably causes more problems in life than fear. That claim needs a bit of explaining. Fear has a bad reputation among most human beings. Fear is not nearly as complicated as we try to make it. A simple and useful definition of fear can be an anxious feeling, caused by our anticipation of some imagined event or experience.
Medical experts tell that the anxious feeling we get when we are afraid is a standardized biological reaction. It is pretty much the same set of body signals, whether we are afraid of getting bitten by a dog, getting turned down for a date, or getting our taxes audited. Fear, like all other emotions, is basically information. It offers us knowledge and understanding if we choose to accept it of our psychobiological status.
There are only five basic fears, out of which almost all of our other so-called fears are manufactured. Those five basic fears are extinction, mutilation, loss of autonomy, separation, and ego-death.
Think about the various common labels we put on our fears. Start with the easy ones: fear of heights or falling is basically fear of extinction, possibly accompanied by significant mutilation, but that is sort of secondary. Fear of failure? Read it as fear of ego-death. Fear of rejection? It is fear of separation, and probably also fear of ego-death. The terror many people have at the idea of having to speak in public is basically fear of ego-death. Fear of intimacy or fear of commitment is basically fear of losing one’s autonomy.
Some other emotions we know by various popular names are also expressions of these primary fears. If you track them down to their most basic levels, the basic fears show through. Jealousy, for example, is an expression of the fear of separation, or devaluation. At the extreme, it can express the fear of ego-death. Envy works the same way. Shame and guilt express the fear or the actual condition of separation and even ego-death. The same is true for embarrassment and humiliation.
Fear is often the base emotion on which anger floats. Oppressed peoples rage against their oppressors because they fear or actually experience loss of autonomy and even ego-death. The destruction of a culture or a religion by an invading occupier may be experienced as a kind of collective ego-death. Those who make us fearful will also make us angry.
Religious bigotry and intolerance may express the fear of ego-death on a cosmic level, and can even extend to existential anxiety. Some of our fears, of course, have basic survival value. Others, however, are learned reflexes that can be weakened or re-learned.
That strange idea of "fearing our fears" can become less strange when we realize that many of our avoidance reactions like turning down an invitation to a party if we tend to be uncomfortable in groups; putting off the doctor’s appointment; or not asking for the raise are instant reflexes that are reactions to the memories of fear. They happen so quickly that we don’t actually experience the full effect of the fear. We experience a micro-fear; a reaction that is a kind of shorthand code for the real fear. This reflex reaction has the same effect of causing us to evade and avoid as the real fear. This is why it is fairly accurate to say that many of our so-called fear reactions are actually the fears of fears.
When we let go of our notion of fear as the welling up of evil forces within us – the Freudian motif – and begin to see fear and its companion emotions as basically information, we can think about them consciously. More clearly and calmly we can articulate the origins of the fear, the less our fears frighten us and control us.
- The Only Thing I Have to Fear is Me (discoveringwisdom.com)
- FEAR: What Would You Do If You Weren’t Afraid? (believecounselling.ie)
- The Fear (randomblurting.com)
- Heroism vs. Fear (bhauschild.wordpress.com)
- Life’s Greatest Threat (tobilobaoladunjoye.wordpress.com)
Endorphins are hormones that are released by the pituitary gland that have motivational benefits. Many long-distance runners experience frequent rushes of endorphin release.
Most people who run want to become fit and maintain a healthy weight. A combination of diet and exercise has proven to be the most effective way to lose weight. Running is a cardiovascular exercise that allows you to burn an average of 100 calories per mile. The number of calories burned varies depending on how fast and long you run.
Cardiovascular exercises, such as running, strengthen the heart. In fact, a person who does not run daily has a heart that beats approximately 36,000 times more than the average runner. The reason is because running keeps the arteries open and blood flowing more easily. They expand and contract more often, increasing their elasticity. The result is lower blood pressure and the heart doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood. Running is also beneficial for the lungs. The exercise makes runners take deeper breaths, which increases lung capacity over time.
Running also has psychological benefits. The endorphins that are released during running help to treat depression and other psychological disorders. Running helps people feel less fatigued, depressed, and tense throughout the day.
Many things can trigger the release of endorphins. Though many triggers are known to exist, the primary triggers are stress and pain. The hypothalamus is the command-and-control center of endocrine system. It decides when you need to eat, when you should begin puberty and when you need a big dose of endorphins, among many other functions. It keeps tabs on every part of your central nervous system, and hormones are released to other parts of the body when the hypothalamus wants to make an adjustment.
Many cardiovascular exercises, like running, swimming, and cycling, stimulate the release of endorphins; hormones that block pain and enable you to experience euphoric feelings. Endorphins are closely linked to addictions and were discovered by scientists who carried out research on drug addictions. The findings showed that the brain contains its own chemicals that are more potent than most drugs, such as opium and morphine. Endorphins are released during strenuous exercises. The chemicals make runners feel energized both during and after the exercise. This feeling is often referred to as a “runner’s high” and helps to motivate runners. The amount of endorphins released depends on the physical fitness of a runner. Daily runners will maximize the potential benefits of endorphins.
Running elevates the levels of endorphins more than other cardiovascular exercises, like swimming and cycling. Additionally, the Department of Health and Sport Science at the University of Richmond attempted to determine if weight lifting heightened the level of endorphins in the body. The experiment concluded that the levels remained unchanged both during and after weight-lifting exercises. Other sport activities that require great cardio fitness levels, such as long-distance rowing, football, basketball, and soccer, produce high levels of endorphins.
When hypothalamus of the brain calls for endorphins, it initiates a chain of messages by chemically prompting the pituitary gland to release its own chemicals that then make their way to glands throughout your body and on down the line until endorphin-containing neurons release them. These endorphins then find their way to the brain’s opioid receptors.
Endorphin is produced throughout body and is requested by the hypothalamus, but besides stress and pain triggers, endorphins are also released by exercises like heavy weightlifting or intense aerobic activity that includes periods of sprinting or increased exertion. Exercises are not the only activities that trigger the production of endorphins. Clinical researchers reported that acupuncture also effectively raises endorphin levels. Acupuncture needles that were inserted into specific body points helped to release endorphins in spinal fluid. The patients experienced relaxation and the pain-blocking effects of the chemical.
The most difficult part of exercising is getting into a routine. Remember that the effect of endorphins increases with routine and better physical fitness. Once you start running every day, the quality of your health and life can dramatically increase. Meditation or controlled-breathing exercises like Tai chi, Pilates and yoga trigger endorphins. Giving birth to a child is clearly a subcategory of both pain and stress. Light to moderate drinking stimulates endorphins, but heavy drinking doesn’t. Drugs that block the attachment of endorphins to receptors have been shown to eliminate cravings in alcoholics. Capsaicin, which puts the burn in chilies, also triggers the body to release some fire-quenching endorphins. Acupuncture and massage therapy trigger your inner drug dealer. Ultraviolet light also trigger endorphin production which may explain why some users of tanning beds achieve something of a "runner’s high," and why others may overuse them at the risk of their health.