There are things that I will never understand like misogyny, rape, and abuse. I am a straight dominant man. I cannot look at a woman and not be amazed at the beauty of her form, the strength of her mind, and the mysteries within her eyes. There is a beauty in every woman and only the right man brings it shining out. If a woman is not interested in you, she is not a slut or bitch; she is simply not for you. A confident man with nothing to prove merely wishes her a goodnight, tells her that she is still beautiful in his eyes and goes on his way to look for the right one for him. If you are a straight male and you don’t love and respect a woman, the problem is not with them, it is with you. Respect is never weak. Respect amplifies everything that is inside. So, good becomes great. Bad becomes worse, a strong man, who has known power all his life, will lose respect for that power. But a weak man knows the value of strength, and knows compassion. Women are genetically more complex because the active X chromosome is a mix of mom’s and dad’s. Men’s X chromosome all comes from mom and their Y chromosome carries less than 100 genes, compared with about 1,500 for the X chromosome.
Although women may not be scientifically proven to differ from men in intelligence or motivation, researchers have discovered women are more complex—genetically, at least. In a study published in Nature, researchers from Duke and Pennsylvania State University found surprising levels of genetic variation on the X chromosome—an area that has not been fully explored until now. The findings suggest women and men are more different than originally believed. When considering this additional number of genes as well as the variability in gene expression on the X chromosome, women are more complex than men, in that sense.
The human genome, the complete set of genes within an individual, is comprised of 23 pairs of chromosomes, one pair of which is responsible for determining gender. These two chromosomes, called sex chromosomes, are designated by the letters X and Y. Males have a combination of X and Y, while females have two X chromosomes. Genes, a DNA sequence that encodes the recipe to create proteins in the body, are located on chromosomes. Because women have two sets of X genes, female cells choose to de-activate one copy of the X chromosome in a process called “silencing.” This is to avoid any harmful effects that would result in double expression of such genes.
At least 15 percent of the genes on the X chromosome escape silencing and another 10 percent show variable degrees of expression among women. The results of the study, however, not only revealed the degree of genetic differences between the sexes, they also showed differences among women themselves. While one woman may have her copy of a particular X-linked gene expressed, another woman may not. These un-silenced or partially silenced genes on the X chromosome comprise more than 1 percent of the entire genome, accounting for more than 200 to 300 more expressed genes in women than in men. What the finding superimposes upon the characteristic differences between men and women is how much of that variation is present from one female to another.
Recognizing this variation is important for medicine, as there are a large number of diseases that are much more common among women than men. A lot of the differences in gender-based medicine are due to hormonal effects and cultural effects. We should look in addition at the genetic differences between men and women. There are still many basic questions to be answered, such as whether this variability in silencing is affected by age or is present in different tissues. The ultimate goal is to provide information to help identify patients who have the highest risks for sex-associated diseases and guide treatment. These diseases, which range from heart disease to psychiatric disorders, involve numerous genes that are found on other chromosomes in addition to the X.
Researchers went into this from a very basic perspective to understand the basis of silencing events, but now they are finding very important results that have medical implications such as genetic counseling for hereditary diseases. In the case of Turner’s syndrome, in which only one of the two X chromosomes is functional in a female, deficits in the genes responsible for the symptoms can now be clarified, providing scientists with a better understanding of the biology underlying the genetic disease. We can never answer all the questions; we can just ask better questions.
- Genetics for dummies (tracimatt.com)
- Architecture of chromosomes: A key for success or failure (eurekalert.org)
- Of genetics and inheritance in humans… (cranialrevolution.wordpress.com)
- The role of Men and Women in reproduction (trayagerlie.wordpress.com)
- Slithering Toward Clarity: Snakes Shed New Light on the Evolution and Function of Sex Chromosomes (plosbiology.org)
- Evolution has a simple genetic skeleton (blogs.discovermagazine.com)
- Health kick ‘reverses cell ageing’ (bbc.co.uk)