Since lightning is electricity, how hot can a lightning bolt be?
Hotter than you probably think, says Brent McRoberts of Texas A&M University. "Scientists have done numerous experiments on this very subject," McRoberts explains, "and the air around a lightning bolt can reach as high as 54,000 degrees. That is over five times hotter than the surface of the sun. That is why when the air gets that hot, it expands faster than the speed of sound, and the compressed air around it sends out a quick shock wave — and that is thunder. Since one bolt is really several bolts strung together, there are several of these shock waves one right after another, each at a different altitude. That is why thunder often seems to rumble. One bolt can contain millions of volts of electricity, McRoberts adds, "That’s why lightning can be such a killer — it is extremely powerful. About 100 U.S. residents are killed by lightning each year, and remember that worldwide, there are more than 1,000 thunderstorms at any given moment, causing 6,000 lightning strikes per minute. It has been estimated that the Empire State Building in New York City is struck by lightning an average of 25 times each year.”
This is a photograph taken from the teenager (shirtless guy) named Austin Schafer’s Twitter account, of a kid being tied up and beaten by upper classmen at Columbia High School in Nampa, Idaho.
President Franklin Roosevelt famously asserted, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." I think he was right, actually. Fear of fear probably causes more problems in life than fear. That claim needs a bit of explaining. Fear has a bad reputation among most human beings. Fear is not nearly as complicated as we try to make it. A simple and useful definition of fear can be an anxious feeling, caused by our anticipation of some imagined event or experience.
Medical experts tell that the anxious feeling we get when we are afraid is a standardized biological reaction. It is pretty much the same set of body signals, whether we are afraid of getting bitten by a dog, getting turned down for a date, or getting our taxes audited. Fear, like all other emotions, is basically information. It offers us knowledge and understanding if we choose to accept it of our psychobiological status.
There are only five basic fears, out of which almost all of our other so-called fears are manufactured. Those five basic fears are extinction, mutilation, loss of autonomy, separation, and ego-death.
Think about the various common labels we put on our fears. Start with the easy ones: fear of heights or falling is basically fear of extinction, possibly accompanied by significant mutilation, but that is sort of secondary. Fear of failure? Read it as fear of ego-death. Fear of rejection? It is fear of separation, and probably also fear of ego-death. The terror many people have at the idea of having to speak in public is basically fear of ego-death. Fear of intimacy or fear of commitment is basically fear of losing one’s autonomy.
Some other emotions we know by various popular names are also expressions of these primary fears. If you track them down to their most basic levels, the basic fears show through. Jealousy, for example, is an expression of the fear of separation, or devaluation. At the extreme, it can express the fear of ego-death. Envy works the same way. Shame and guilt express the fear or the actual condition of separation and even ego-death. The same is true for embarrassment and humiliation.
Fear is often the base emotion on which anger floats. Oppressed peoples rage against their oppressors because they fear or actually experience loss of autonomy and even ego-death. The destruction of a culture or a religion by an invading occupier may be experienced as a kind of collective ego-death. Those who make us fearful will also make us angry.
Religious bigotry and intolerance may express the fear of ego-death on a cosmic level, and can even extend to existential anxiety. Some of our fears, of course, have basic survival value. Others, however, are learned reflexes that can be weakened or re-learned.
That strange idea of "fearing our fears" can become less strange when we realize that many of our avoidance reactions like turning down an invitation to a party if we tend to be uncomfortable in groups; putting off the doctor’s appointment; or not asking for the raise are instant reflexes that are reactions to the memories of fear. They happen so quickly that we don’t actually experience the full effect of the fear. We experience a micro-fear; a reaction that is a kind of shorthand code for the real fear. This reflex reaction has the same effect of causing us to evade and avoid as the real fear. This is why it is fairly accurate to say that many of our so-called fear reactions are actually the fears of fears.
When we let go of our notion of fear as the welling up of evil forces within us – the Freudian motif – and begin to see fear and its companion emotions as basically information, we can think about them consciously. More clearly and calmly we can articulate the origins of the fear, the less our fears frighten us and control us.
- The Only Thing I Have to Fear is Me (discoveringwisdom.com)
- FEAR: What Would You Do If You Weren’t Afraid? (believecounselling.ie)
- The Fear (randomblurting.com)
- Heroism vs. Fear (bhauschild.wordpress.com)
- Life’s Greatest Threat (tobilobaoladunjoye.wordpress.com)
Endorphins are hormones that are released by the pituitary gland that have motivational benefits. Many long-distance runners experience frequent rushes of endorphin release.
Most people who run want to become fit and maintain a healthy weight. A combination of diet and exercise has proven to be the most effective way to lose weight. Running is a cardiovascular exercise that allows you to burn an average of 100 calories per mile. The number of calories burned varies depending on how fast and long you run.
Cardiovascular exercises, such as running, strengthen the heart. In fact, a person who does not run daily has a heart that beats approximately 36,000 times more than the average runner. The reason is because running keeps the arteries open and blood flowing more easily. They expand and contract more often, increasing their elasticity. The result is lower blood pressure and the heart doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood. Running is also beneficial for the lungs. The exercise makes runners take deeper breaths, which increases lung capacity over time.
Running also has psychological benefits. The endorphins that are released during running help to treat depression and other psychological disorders. Running helps people feel less fatigued, depressed, and tense throughout the day.
Many things can trigger the release of endorphins. Though many triggers are known to exist, the primary triggers are stress and pain. The hypothalamus is the command-and-control center of endocrine system. It decides when you need to eat, when you should begin puberty and when you need a big dose of endorphins, among many other functions. It keeps tabs on every part of your central nervous system, and hormones are released to other parts of the body when the hypothalamus wants to make an adjustment.
Many cardiovascular exercises, like running, swimming, and cycling, stimulate the release of endorphins; hormones that block pain and enable you to experience euphoric feelings. Endorphins are closely linked to addictions and were discovered by scientists who carried out research on drug addictions. The findings showed that the brain contains its own chemicals that are more potent than most drugs, such as opium and morphine. Endorphins are released during strenuous exercises. The chemicals make runners feel energized both during and after the exercise. This feeling is often referred to as a “runner’s high” and helps to motivate runners. The amount of endorphins released depends on the physical fitness of a runner. Daily runners will maximize the potential benefits of endorphins.
Running elevates the levels of endorphins more than other cardiovascular exercises, like swimming and cycling. Additionally, the Department of Health and Sport Science at the University of Richmond attempted to determine if weight lifting heightened the level of endorphins in the body. The experiment concluded that the levels remained unchanged both during and after weight-lifting exercises. Other sport activities that require great cardio fitness levels, such as long-distance rowing, football, basketball, and soccer, produce high levels of endorphins.
When hypothalamus of the brain calls for endorphins, it initiates a chain of messages by chemically prompting the pituitary gland to release its own chemicals that then make their way to glands throughout your body and on down the line until endorphin-containing neurons release them. These endorphins then find their way to the brain’s opioid receptors.
Endorphin is produced throughout body and is requested by the hypothalamus, but besides stress and pain triggers, endorphins are also released by exercises like heavy weightlifting or intense aerobic activity that includes periods of sprinting or increased exertion. Exercises are not the only activities that trigger the production of endorphins. Clinical researchers reported that acupuncture also effectively raises endorphin levels. Acupuncture needles that were inserted into specific body points helped to release endorphins in spinal fluid. The patients experienced relaxation and the pain-blocking effects of the chemical.
The most difficult part of exercising is getting into a routine. Remember that the effect of endorphins increases with routine and better physical fitness. Once you start running every day, the quality of your health and life can dramatically increase. Meditation or controlled-breathing exercises like Tai chi, Pilates and yoga trigger endorphins. Giving birth to a child is clearly a subcategory of both pain and stress. Light to moderate drinking stimulates endorphins, but heavy drinking doesn’t. Drugs that block the attachment of endorphins to receptors have been shown to eliminate cravings in alcoholics. Capsaicin, which puts the burn in chilies, also triggers the body to release some fire-quenching endorphins. Acupuncture and massage therapy trigger your inner drug dealer. Ultraviolet light also trigger endorphin production which may explain why some users of tanning beds achieve something of a "runner’s high," and why others may overuse them at the risk of their health.