A new artificial intelligence system can spot the tell-tale signs of skin cancer just as accurately as dermatologists. If one can get the tech on a smartphone, so anyone can run a self-diagnosis. Once the system is refined further and becomes portable, it could give many more people the chance to get screened with minimal cost, and without having to wait for an appointment with a doctor to confirm the symptoms. But the technology is not designed to replace doctors; it is designed to give people easier access to the first two screening stages before getting expert help.
Spotting the difference between a deadly lesion and a benign one is no easy task. One has to cautious about releasing the tool to the public before they know it would not make any false assessments, and real-world clinical testing should help improve it further. We are now seeing numerous programs and apps, powered by the intuitive reasoning of artificial intelligence showing up on phones, and giving us cheap and easy ways of assessing our health at home and that has to be better than just typing a few symptoms into Google.
Like many other diseases, early diagnosis of skin cancer is crucial. If spotted early, 10-year survival rates are around 95 percent, but that drops to 10-15 percent if the cancer has reached its later stages before being treated. This is an exciting new technology that has the potential to increase access to dermatology at a time where there is shortage in this specialty and the rates of skin cancer continue to rise.
Credits: The Stanford University Researchers.
Being beautiful has its rewards and these usually continue throughout adulthood. The secret of beauty and attractiveness is a quest of humans for as long as we became civilized. Many of us spend up to one-third of our income on looking good. Besides being popular, beautiful people get special attention from teachers, the legal system and employers. Good-looking people tend to make more money than their plain-Jane counterparts. A plainness penalty, punishing below-average-looks earn 9 percent less an hour.
We instinctively know what appeals to our own sense of beauty — we know it when we see it — defining what determines attractiveness is not easy. In frustration, we often give up and claim that beauty is in they eye of the beholder. Attractiveness is hard wired in our brains. Babies as young as 3 months identify and prefer faces that most adults would deem beautiful. Europeans can pick out the same beautiful Japanese faces as Japanese subjects. Japanese can agree on which European faces another Europeans will view as beautiful. Humans can even agree on the attractiveness of monkey faces, thus ruling out most unique racial, cultural and even species influences.
Facial recognition is a complex process. Computer facial recognition programs have been developed to analyze the subtle variations of things like the space between our eyes, the size of our noses and the proportions of our facial features. There are certain mathematical facial proportions that identify beautiful people. There is more to beauty than the mere arrangement of eyes, noses and chins. Our brains do much more than simply recognize a beautiful face. We can assess emotions, personality traits and fertility — as well as beauty — almost instantaneously. The human brain has special part called the fusiform, located in the back of the head near the spine. It is the same neural pathway needed to recognize faces of family, friends and people we have met. When it is damaged, the patients cannot recognize anyone, even people they have just met. They cannot discriminate between photographs of plain and beautiful faces.
When we recognize a face as "beautiful" we are actually making a judgement about the health and vitality of that individual. We interpret facial symmetry, that is to say, the similarity of left and right halves of a face and the smoothness of the skin to mean that a person has good genes and is free from diseases. This is part of what we mean by beautiful. Facial symmetry is one of the best observational indicators of good genes and healthy development and that these traits are what we mean when we say someone is attractive.
Facial asymmetry increases with the presence of genetic disturbances such as deleterious recessives and with homozygosity. Facial asymmetry increases with the exposure to environmental perturbations during development. Facial asymmetry is the inability of an individual to resist the disruptions in developmental symmetry. This implies a genetic weakness and less than optimum health. Bilateral symmetry is equated with heterozygosity and resistance to infection and debilitating pathogens. Bilateral symmetry and parasite resistance are factors that show optimum health and increase the success in intersexual and intrasexual competition.
The term homozygosity refers to the similarity of genetic characteristics that can cause a weakening of a species — such as occurs with in-breeding. Heterozygosity, on the other hand, is the result of genetic variety which is able to change and adapt to environmental conditions. The latter is believed to be more beneficial to a species.
Attractiveness from a female’s perspective is related to fertility of women, which causes hormonal changes in the brain that seek out strong testosterone traits in their potential mates. These traits are usually associated with aggressive behavior, risk taking and virility traits that are advantageous in the act of procreation. When women are assessing a man’s face for a marriage partner, they usually react to a man with a wide smile, small eyes, a big nose and a large jaw. This is thought to indicate a strong testosterone level, a potentially good provider and protector for family life. Younger women rely more on the physical attractiveness of a man than do older women. The latter incorporate such things as wealth, stability, power and faithfulness in their definition of attractive.
Attractiveness from a male’s perspective for ideal face of an attractive woman, prefer younger proportions because these child-like faces stimulate emotions of caring and protection. These emotions seem to be more significant than sexual urges and procreation in men. This can be in the psychological realm that dangerously approaches pathology and the law. Yet this "lolita" proclivity is hard wired.
When it comes to body proportions, most men usually like big breasts and hips; again linked to the ability to bare and nurture offspring. Estrogen, the hormone associated with female fertility, encourages fat deposits around the buttocks and thighs. Full buttocks and a narrow waist send out the same message as the ideal face. The woman is full of estrogen and very fertile. Dr Michael Cunningham of Elmhurst College, Illinois found that if a male is judging a female in an interview for a job, a woman with expressive eyebrows and dilated pupils has the edge and is likely to be considered more competent. The same features would not be judged as attractive if the same man was looking for a mate. Cunningham also found that attractive women with mature features, such as small eyes and a large nose, received more respect from men.
A face with average proportions always looks more beautiful than a unique, individual face. Average features make the faces more attractive than any specific face. The average face is easy for the brain to recognize and require less analysis and processing in the fusiform. This ease of recognition is perceived as attractiveness. But this idea is recently disproved by Dr David Perrett, of the University of St Andrews, who found that individual faces were judged more attractive than the composites. This would account for the popularity of actresses such as Brigitte Nielsen and Daryl Hannah, who have features that are far from average.
Psychologist David Perrett found that young men and women prefer faces that most resemble their mothers and fathers. Members of a close family also often share the interpretation of certain facial characteristics in judging someone’s personality. Although this does not relate directly with beauty or attractiveness, it demonstrates that some aspects of evaluating facial characteristics is learned.
My own take on this is that it is a matter of nature versus nurture. Various centers of our hard wired brain, like the fusiform, compete to control our daily decisions. One center is concerned with mate selection based on physical traits. Others brain regions respond to a potential mate who is also intelligent, honest, faithful, kind and sane. Attractiveness, in the end, actually is unique to each individual. It should be said that, "beauty is in the eyes (plural) of the beholder." It is more a matter of left and right brain politics and both hemispheres must work together to attract us to the perfect mate, as they usually do.
According to Science Daily, men with large jaws, flaring cheeks and large eyebrows are sexy, at least in the eyes of our ancestors. Facial attractiveness plays a major role in shaping human evolution. Our choice of sexual partner has shaped the human face. The face holds the secret to determining the sex of our ancestors and what makes us attractive to the opposite sex for reproduction.
According to paleontologists at the Natural History Museum, men evolved short faces between the brow and upper lip, which exaggerates the size of their jaw, the flare of their cheeks and their eyebrows. The shorter and broader male face has also evolved alongside and the canine teeth have shrunk, so men look less threatening to competitors, yet attractive to mates.
At puberty, the region between the mouth and eyebrows, known as upper facial height, develops differently in men and women. Unlike other facial features, however, this difference cannot be explained simply in terms of men being bigger than women. In spite of their larger size, men have an upper face similar in height to a female face, but much broader. These differences can be found throughout human history. As a result, a simple ratio of measures could be used to calculate facial attractiveness in a biological and mathematical way. In fact, scientists recently invented a computer program that can recognize attractiveness.
Dr Eleanor Weston, paleontologist at the Natural History Museum is of the opinion that the evolution of facial appearance is central to understanding what makes men and women attractive to each other. It is discovered that the distance between the lip and brow is immensely important to what made homosapiens attractive in the past, as it does now.